Electronic systems within digital data communication systems required for DPR functionality during normal grid operations tend to be more sensitive to HEMP transients than the DPR devices themselves.
This may not be possible with high amounts of E3-induced DC current. In addition, the magnetic fields from a GMD event produce electric fields and geomagnetically induced currents that are related to the derivative of the magnetic field.
EDTF is also concerned by another example of unwarranted optimism associated with grid stability. EDTF also recognizes that America is blessed with an open and free society, an innovative entrepreneurial spirit, and highly adaptive corporate and government leadership.
Notably, E1 effects on protective relays are likely to interrupt substation self-protection processes needed to interrupt E3 current flow through transformers.
Logic dictates that one does not prove that a complex system will not fail based on a test using one combination of possible stresses. In addition, the LANL work has not been published or peer reviewed by the experts in the field. The criticality and function of the different relay models should have been assessed and prioritized, based on their effects upon grid stability.
EPRI is committed to pro-poor, equitable and inclusive economic growth and social protection for vulnerable people as a developmental response to poverty. New EMP protection systems or retrofit protection is, with some exceptions, not currently available to protect large power transformers and generators within competitive interstate power markets.