Pollution of air and water
Unsafe water kills more people each year than war and all other forms of violence combined. For developing countries, specific data on this topic are found primarily in the so-called gray literature: government reports, consultant reports, or reports by the international banks.
The major urban air pollutants can also give rise to significant respiratory morbidity WHO The Antarctic ozone hole The most dramatic evidence of the destruction of the ozone layer has occurred over Antarctica, where a massive "hole" in the ozone layer appears each winter and spring, apparently exacerbated by the area's unique and violent climatological conditions. Economic Benefits of Interventions One of the early examples of cost-benefit analysis for chemical pollution control is the Japan Environment Agency's study of three Japanese classical pollution diseases: Yokkaichi asthma, Minamata disease, and Itai-Itai disease table Other products manufactured using CFCs include solvents and cleaning liquids used on electrical equipment, polystyrene foam products, and fire extinguishers that use halons. The main concern is effects on the brain from low-level exposure leading to behavioral aberrations and reduced or delayed development of intellectual or motoric ability WHO Some pesticides are applied to plants by spraying from a distance—even from airplanes. Four basic protective barriers help keep water safe to drink: Prevention: Keep contaminants out of the drinking water source to protect the environment and reduce the need for costly treatment. The emissions from several million motor vehicles more Lead exposure has been implicated in hypertension in adults, and this effect may be the most important for the lead burden of disease at a population level WHO Each of three categories of interventions toxin control, fatal injury reduction, and medicine presented in table Joe Waters of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory summarizes the urgent task: "We must be able to lay out the catalytic cycles that are destroying ozone at all altitudes all over the globe—from its production region in the tropics to the higher latitudes and the polar regions. While point source pollution originates from a specific place, it can affect miles of waterways and ocean. Meanwhile, marine debris— particularly plastic —is blown in by the wind or washed in via storm drains and sewers. A system of congestion fees, in which drivers have to pay before entering central urban areas, was introduced in Singapore, Oslo, and London and has been effective in this respect.
Nonpoint-source pollution involves many small sources that combine to cause significant pollution. These changes may be due to shifts in the economy at large, changes in weather patterns, or other such variables.
Categories of Water Pollution Groundwater When rain falls and seeps deep into the earth, filling the cracks, crevices, and porous spaces of an aquifer basically an underground storehouse of waterit becomes groundwater—one of our least visible but most important natural resources.
And low-income communities are disproportionately at risk because their homes are often closest to the most polluting industries. In a cost-benefit analysis, Misra estimated the net present social benefits from water pollution abatement at the Nandesari Industrial Estate at Rs 0.
Intervention Costs and Cost-Effectiveness This chapter cannot follow the detailed format for the economic analysis of different preventive interventions devised for the disease-specific chapters, because the exposures, health effects, and interventions are too varied and because of the lack of overarching examples of economic assessments.
Because of space limitations, this chapter can give only selected examples of air and water pollution health concerns.
Early loss of life in elderly people, who would have died soon regardless of the air pollution, has been labeled mortality displacement, because it contributes little to the overall burden of disease McMichael and others High levels of copper may make water appear bluish green and give it a metallic taste.
Because conditions of atmospheric transport and dispersion typically vary with location and time, the forecasting staff cannot prepare advisories for each city in the United States.
Air and water pollution essay
Implementation of Control Strategies: Lessons of Experience The foregoing examples demonstrate that interventions to protect health that use chemical pollution control can have an attractive cost-benefit ratio. Groundwater gets polluted when contaminants—from pesticides and fertilizers to waste leached from landfills and septic systems—make their way into an aquifer, rendering it unsafe for human use. More fuel-efficient vehicles, such as hybrid gas-electric vehicles, are another way forward. Such policies could involve outright bans such as requiring lead-free gasoline or asbestos-free vehicle brake linings or building materials ; guidance on desirable technologies for example, providing best-practice manuals ; or economic instruments that make using more polluting technologies more expensive than using less polluting technologies an example of the polluter pays principle. Ozone thinning spreads Indeed, ozone layer depletion is spreading at an alarming rate. Cost-effectiveness analysis of air and water pollution control measures in developing countries needs to be supported by further research, as cost levels and benefit valuations will vary from country to country, and solutions that are valid in industrial countries may not work as well in developing countries. The December announcement finalizes a rule that will replace year old technology requirements and permitting regulations that did not address today's environmental needs and did not keep pace with growth in the industry. Textile and dye industries emit a liquid effluent that contains toxic residues from the cleaning of equipment. The rule will also reduce pathogens in drinking water and improve coastal water quality. On human health To put it bluntly: Water pollution kills. Unexpectedly high pollutant concentrations can occur near the shore when the high pollutant loading blows past. In addition to this effect, which generally occurs close to land, the sea breeze itself can penetrate as far inland as 40 mi or more.
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